Sunday, April 22, 2018

to $(AR) or not to $(AR)

During the preparation of the "controllers" tutorial, I faced a weird linking problem. I wanted to split the huge "controllers.cxx" file so that every controller would be in a sub-file that could be compiled separately and no longer depend on the code from other controllers unless there is a good reason for that. And all of suddens, I had no more factories registered.

Just before that, I had reviewed the factory registering system so that it was enough to just write "MomentumFactory mf("momentum");" as a top-level declaration to get everything up and running. But that meant there was no more reference from the main .o files of the game/demo that would require .o files with the factory code (and instance declaration), so they wouldn't be packed in, and certainly wouldn't be initialized either.

So I started thinking about weird mechanisms invoking bool pointers to dummy variables, or no-code functions, and even why not "UsingPlatformer" empty class that would extend UsingMomentum, UsingDpad and others... Then I realized that all this happened because the .o files (compilation output, that is. Equivalent of your *.OBJ if you're on MS-DOS) are packed into a static library and only pulled to populate the .NDS file on-demand at link-time. If instead I explicitly say "link Demo/*.o Controllers/*.o", they are put into the binary and no trick is needed anymore.

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

shell functions

For so long, I have been creating aliases for my shell. "dir" would be "ls -la" and things like that. TCSH even had ways to retrieve some attributes to the aliases. building 20 student programs and testing them would have merely required me to type N (for next), B (for build) and T (to launch simple tests). Do I need to fix something to better evaluate their program ? B again, then T again.

But it had its drawbacks, and it was pretty ugly to code. Nowadays, I'd do that with shell function instead. Rather than trying to rewrite the statement, it truly allows me to extract all the arguments (either separately or together) and then calling one or more commands

cl()
{
    color.pl $* | less -R
}


One last place here I used aliases is with the "quick cd" tool I use to keep my brain sane and my screen not-excessively-cluttered
#!/usr/bin/bash

export CITY=$(pwd)
echo "You are in the City. $CITY"
echo "You can set 4 locations. North, South, East and West."

alias setN='export NORTH=$(pwd)'
alias setW='export WEST=$(pwd)'
alias setE='export EAST=$(pwd)'
alias setS='export SOUTH=$(pwd)'
alias setC='export CITY=$(pwd)'

alias N='cd $NORTH'
alias S='cd $SOUTH'
alias E='cd $EAST'
alias W='cd $WEST'
alias C='cd $CITY'

And yes, it pretends that you're running an old-fashioned, text-based adventure game instead of crawling directories. Because i found it easier to thing of thinks as "west", "north", etc. rather than trying to remember what letter I used for "gstreamer" and what letter was for "alsa".

Saturday, April 14, 2018

Dear ImGUI,

I hope you enjoyed the week-end. It sure was a pleasure to have you around, and getting some pixels rendered without having to bother with ./configure, plugging events into sockets or any kind of new classes.

Sure, I wish you had time to stay for tea and I would have shown you my SpritePages, but I suppose that can be kept for another encounter. I'm pretty sure you and I are meant to meet each other pretty soon.

Everyone was amazed when you just returned "true" in the line of code that painted a new button. Imagine the face they'll have next time when we'll show them GobState representations live and pop up new windows as one explore the state machine...

Stay Safe,
/PypeBros.

PS: okay, the unit-tester requiring 32-bit (so that DS registers addresses are out of the .text segment) and SDL requiring 64-bit won't simplify early integration tests ... we'll find some workaround.

Monday, April 09, 2018

Tutorial revision goes on.

I reached the point where you can write very simple scripts and have them processed on the "tutorial" branch. Of course there isn't much follow-up at the moment despite the 3 forums on which I comment stuff. That doesn't really matter, although I'd love to get feedback on whether it reads well.

What is really interesting here is that it forces me to get rid of many odd things. Hopefully, that will lead to a code base that will be easier to extend. Things like "rules.gam", for instance.

Being busy reviewing the expressions system, for instance, make it obvious that some static array could be gone now that I have the gob collision structure. the "game counter al so cry for a refactoring out of the GameScript class. And making the 'guns/controllers' system easier to understand (esp. by automating the registration system) made it obvious that I need to re-think the way classes access the Camera object.

Friday, March 30, 2018

Aladdin Sources Analysis

They made a wonderful job at gamehistory.org, based on an in-depth analysis of the sources of the Mega-drive game "Aladdin". The game was made by David Perry's team who also brought us Cool Spot. At the core of their work is a technique and a toolset to allow more flexibility in animating graphics on 16-bits system that had read/write video memory on-board (as opposed to NES with read-only video memory alone, on the cartridge) and fixed-size sprites (e.g. 16x16, 16x32, 32x32).

https://gamehistory.org/aladdin-source-code/#sect_36Everything else will seem silly to you if you do not accept that, by then, getting more KB of memory for your game was very - very - hard. The size of your game was decided by non-technical people based on how much the console vendor would charge for a 2Mbit chip, when the game should came out and how much kids would be allowed to spend given which license you'd be using. So they have early planning deciding how much to dedicate to sprites, levels, code, maps, etc. Based on that, they'll decide how much levels there will be in the game, etc.

Of course, game characters animation all started by having characters whose size fit the hardware requirements (mario nicely stands within a 16x16 box and a 16x16 mushroom makes him 16x32), flipping from one sprite to another within an all-in-VRAM bank. Then some special characters (the hero) would get a special status and only get one or two VRAM slots dynamically updated. To crunch more animation frames, one could use run-length-encoding compression that does wonders on row of pixels of identical color. Others have used 2/3-bit-to-4-bit decompression once realizing that Link sprite (and all others) only need 8 colors per palette, not 16. But all this requires CPU, and the CPU resources too, were limited (Not even 8MHz. Less than my good old 80386).


If we could instead keep the same binary format between the ROM and the RAM, having the right picture in video memory at the right time is all a matter of "blasting" them through the Direct Memory Access chip. See that big line on my notes ? that's the DMA doing its job, while the CPU can focus on crunching numbers to make the game physics stunning and fun...

To make that possible with fun stretch-and-squash, cartoon-like animation, they ultimately relied on their chopper tool that cuts pictures into hardware-sized sprites. Just like the one I imagined for Titus's Prehistorik II sprites.

Ok, granted, it doesn't look completely automated. But the idea is clearly there. And ultimately, it would run on a system that has 1/4 of the power of my Nintendo DS.

So, am I allowed to dream of porting some libgeds game on 16-bit engines ? Well, with the engine refactoring that splits script parsing, it is pretty tempting to see what we could do about it.


Let's start with the animations, thus. What is weird with the animations is that their code has to interrupt every here and there when there is some delay. In high-level language, we'd likely use a switch construct branching you to frame T or frame T+1 code depending on some argument we'd pass to the function. But if we're generating machine code instead, we can do much better. We can then have the actual next animation instruction remembered, rather than an index into an array of virtual instructions. No more conditionals and branch delays on that non-speculating old CPU. Just one jump.

Implementing "keep that state for N screen refreshes" is then looking a lot like software multi-threading: you have a call to some yield_animation micro-routine (and saving your current position into the generated animation code on the stack), which will pop that resume position into some CPU register (an internal scratch variable, in case you didn't know yet), and then return to the code that called animate_aladdin, letting it save the next animation position where it sees fit. Looping animation ? super-easy ! Have you seen how much boilerplate the current virtual-RISC-processor-for-animations of libgeds and AnimEDS must deal with instead ?


What else ? State machine of course. State machines are built with simple expressions used either to guard transition (only let them used when some condition is met) or to define what to do when the transition occur (besides changing states, that is, like playing a sound, changing speed, etc).

The collision system currently will follow a list of GobExpressions calling eval(guard_predicate) until one returns true, then proceeding with eval(action) and changing state. Instead, with generated machine code, that would all be packed into a sequence of predicate code that branch to the appropriate action code or keep testing until we hit the "okay, then nothing happens" terminator that returns to the collision system itself.

One day ... maybe. That would be much more interesting on 16-bit than it would be on DS or native x86_64 code, anyway.

Monday, March 19, 2018

Biggest Refactory Ever

For me, at least. I wanted to make the scripts occur as soon as possible in my tutorial series, since the GEDS engine is meant to allow game-making even for those who don't know about C++ programming. But I also want to be able to introduce a behaviour editor, which suggests that the same script-parsing logic should be able to drive either the game engine or the state machine model in the editor.

So this last week, I've been busy splitting the big singleton "GameScript" that had both the parsing logic and the engine intimacy into two classes, the ScriptParser that knows the language rules and the Game* objects well enough to create them but has no knowledge about the Nintendo DS resources or the game engine per se, and the GameScript, that knows about the engine's runtime, last as long as the level does, hold resources and the like.


ça bosse ferme ... restructuration du lecteur de scripts pour pouvoir introduire un éditeur de machines d'état ...

I've finally reached a point where all my automated tests work again. Of course, School Rush isn't running fine in this branch ... yet.

edit: Okay, SchoolRush runs fine again in the emulator. Just some un-initialized arrays. -Weffc++ should have caught that, though.